Harvard expert explores what the international community can do When the Cold War ended, the U.S. stood as the world’s pre-eminent power and looked forward to a new age of peace and prosperity. But a foreign policy overly focused on spreading American values dashed that promise, argues Stephen M. Walt in his new book, “The Hell of Good Intentions.”Walt, the Robert and Renée Belfer Professor of International Affairs at the Kennedy School, says that failures linked to a strategy of “liberal hegemony” championed by Washington’s foreign policy elite have undermined the goal of advancing ideals like democracy and free markets and diminished the nation’s power and influence.The Gazette spoke to Walt about his critique of U.S. foreign policy and his belief that the remedy lies in a more restrained approach.Q&AStephen M. WaltGAZETTE: How do you define “liberal hegemony” and why has it been such a destructive foreign policy approach for the United States?WALT: Liberal hegemony refers to a strategy that seeks to use American power to spread liberal values far and wide, and in a sense try to transform the world in America’s image. So it’s not “liberal” in the sense of being left wing. Rather, it is about spreading the classic liberal ideals of democracy, human rights, rule of law, and markets all over the world. These are wonderful principles that Americans rightly defend. The problem is that trying to spread them around the world doesn’t work very well, as we’ve seen for the past 25 years.First of all, non-democracies are threatened by this strategy and they resist in various ways, and sometimes quite effectively. Second, when we succeed in toppling a dictatorship and then try to create a democracy, it turns out to be an extremely difficult task, as we’ve seen in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, and other places. So instead of spreading our values, we end up with failed states, insurgencies, and terrorism. Third, this project involved the United States committing itself to protect countries all over the world, which meant we took on more and more security burdens without having more resources to accomplish those aims. This policy allowed allies to get a free ride and in some cases act recklessly under the protection of the United States.Liberal hegemony also involved spreading financial markets rapidly and trying to get more and more countries into our trading order, and rapid globalization just didn’t deliver as promised. We ended up with greater inequality here in the United States, stagnant lower and middle-class incomes, and eventually a major financial crisis.Stephen Walt. Harvard file photoGAZETTE: What is some of the evidence for your argument? And was there a pivotal moment when the mistakes began?WALT: The pivotal moment is really the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the unipolar era. The United States was really on top of the world in the early to mid-1990s, and it was an era of great optimism. Our relations with the major powers were good, including Russia and China. Democracy was spreading in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Markets were expanding. Iraq had been disarmed in the first Gulf War, and Iran had no nuclear enrichment capability. The Oslo peace process had begun. So there was this widespread belief that American ideals were going to spread around the world and that this was going to be relatively easy to do.But if you look at the situation we face today, relationships with Russia and China are quite poor, and those two countries are now cooperating quite closely against us. Democracy is in retreat in many parts of the world and under threat in places like Poland and Hungary. Even worse, American democracy itself is increasingly dysfunctional. India, Pakistan, and North Korea have all tested nuclear weapons in this period. The Oslo peace process was a complete failure and the two-state solution that we favored is further away than ever. And countries like Iran are now on the threshold of being nuclear weapons states if they decide they want to be. So given where we were in the early 1990s and where we are today, it’s pretty clear that American foreign policy didn’t accomplish what we thought it would. We are not solely responsible for all of those negative trends, but our fingerprints are on a lot of them.GAZETTE: Instead of relentlessly seeking to spread American values, what should the nation be doing?WALT: We should be focusing our foreign policy on trying first and foremost to make Americans safer and more prosperous here at home and to defend those core American values here in the United States. We should continue to stand up for these values and encourage other countries to embrace them, but primarily by setting a good example, by showing that these values work well in the United States. In terms of foreign policy I argue for a strategy that is sometimes termed “offshore balancing,” where the United States commits itself militarily only when there are threats to the balance of power in critical strategic regions like Europe, Asia, or the Persian Gulf. If no one is threatening to dominate these areas, the United States can stay “offshore” in terms of its military deployments, while remaining engaged around the world economically and diplomatically. Today, the only serious great power rival to the United States is China, and therefore the United States should focus most of its attention on maintaining a favorable balance of power in Asia so that China does not dominate that region. Offshore balancing is a much more restrained foreign policy than we have been following, but it is not isolationism or disengagement.GAZETTE: Is there a danger that if the U.S. shifts to a more restrained foreign policy, the vacuum would be filled by nations that do not support liberal values?WALT: I think that idea is mistaken. The United States has not been able to dictate politics in many parts of the world, despite repeated and sometimes costly efforts. As powerful as we are, we don’t control the evolution of local politics and political alignments in most of the world. We have some influence, but we have not been able to dictate what happens in the Middle East, we can’t determine the fate of Afghanistan after 17 years of war, we have not been able to steer the politics of a country like Hungary or Poland, which are moving in an illiberal direction. If the world’s most powerful country cannot do that, then other countries are not going to be able to do that either. We can do a lot to shape the balance of power in critical areas, but our ability to mold the politics of these regions and tell other countries how to organize their societies is very limited.GAZETTE: Had the U.S. followed the collapse of the Soviet Union with the policies you advocate, what would the world look like now?WALT: We would not have expanded NATO eastward in an open-ended fashion and our relations with Russia would be substantially better. In fact, over time, we would have slowly drawn down our commitment to Europe and encouraged Europe to take greater responsibility for its own defense. I think if we had done that beginning in the 1990s Europe would be in better shape today. The United States would not have adopted the strategy of dual containment in the Persian Gulf in the 1990s, which required us to keep troops in Saudi Arabia to deter Iran and Iraq simultaneously. Our presence there was one reason Osama bin Laden decided to attack the United States, so Sept. 11 might not have happened. Had we adopted a more even-handed approach during the Oslo process, we might have actually gotten a two-state solution. Needless to say I would not have invaded Iraq in 2003. And a more measured approach to globalization would have made sense as well. I’m not suggesting a different policy would have produced a foreign policy nirvana, but it’s pretty easy to see how a less ambitious and more realistic approach to foreign policy would have left us and much of the world in better shape today.Interview was edited and condensed. The latest violence in the Middle East Netanyahu, in the driver’s seat Israeli election results promise more settlements and warnings on Iran, with scant chance of a Palestinian state, Walt says Peace in our times? Harvard Kennedy School panel explores: ‘Is War on the Way Out?’ Related
Nigeria Football Federation has stated categorically that there has been no election into the executive committee of the Anambra State Football Association. Chairman of Chairmen of Nigerian Football, Alhaji Ibrahim Gusau minced no words in declaring that what took place in the State on Monday, 27th July 2020 and which some stakeholders styled ‘an election’ was a charade of very low grade, and the NFF would never recognize such a sham. “That was an act of brigandage and the NFF fully dissociates itself from it. The Electoral Committee sent to the NFF a letter which they received from the Anambra State COVID-19 Task Force, requesting that the elections into the State FA and the local football councils be postponed, in line with the situation in the country, as the ban on sporting activities and mass gatherings was still alive.Advertisement Loading… “The same Electoral Committee issued a press statement on Monday, 27th July 2020 informing the general public that the elections would no longer hold, and regretted the inconvenience that the sudden postponement may have caused the candidates, delegates, observers, stakeholders and the general public. read also:NFF chieftain Ofo-Okenwa to be buried Friday“In view of these, it is incomprehensible how anyone could have gone ahead with the charade they are calling ‘election’, and you begin to wonder who actually conducted the so-called election,” Gusau said on Tuesday. Gusau, who is also a Member of the NFF Executive Committee, stated further: “That was an affront on the Government and the NFF will never be part of it. The Anambra State COVID-19 Task Force made it clear that there should be no such gathering. It is irksome, and let it be said without ambiguity that the NFF does not recognize such a sham and it cannot stand.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Promoted ContentYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend BetterThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read More10 Irresistibly Gorgeous Asian ActressesThis Is Probably The Happiest Dog On Instagram7 Reasons Why You Might Want To Become A VegetarianCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable WayBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For ThemA Guy Turns Gray Walls And Simple Bricks Into Works Of Art6 Incredibly Strange Facts About HurricanesWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?7 Universities In The World With The Highest Market Value
BENNINGTON, Neb. – RaceSaver Enterprises is pleased to announce the acquisition of the RaceSaver Sprint Series by Roger Hadan, owner and promoter of Eagle, Neb. Hadan has obtained the rights to the name RaceSaver and will oversee all media relations, sponsorships, hard card applications, etc. for the series. IMCA will be the official sanctioning body again in 2016 and beyond. French Grimes, the originator of the series in 1997, will retain his position as the face of RaceSaver. He will also be relied on to establish and oversee all rules and regulations as well as having the final word on all tech-related issues. “Three years ago, I had a weekly Sprint Car class at Eagle Raceway that was struggling with its car count due to rising costs. After having 50 different sets of Sprint Car rules spread out across my living room floor, trying to find rules that were enforceable, I discovered RaceSaver,” Hadan said. “So that is the direction we took. Three years later, here I am with a weekly RaceSaver Sprint Car division that is drawing 30 or more cars most nights.”“We want to let everyone know that we are going to uphold to the fine tradition of the RaceSaver Sprint Series and hopefully expand the series even further,” he continued. “French has had a truly excellent run in providing affordable competition in a class where costs are escalating constantly and making it difficult for the budget racer to have equal footing. We will do everything in our power to ensure that there will always be Sprint Car racing for the teams and fans.”Hard card applications and tech forms should now on be sent to RaceSaver Enterprises at PO Box 17, Bennington, Neb., 68007.“RaceSaver has grown to well over 1,000 cars because of the hard work and dedication of all of our regional directors and their competitors. The vision was, and is to preserve racing for racers from working families,” said Grimes. “My responsibility is to try to make sure that the future of RaceSaver is protected. Roger and I started working together three years ago. He is responsible for paving the way for the association of IMCA and RaceSaver, which brought all of the benefits of IMCA membership.” “Roger has proven he is a man of character and a true believer in RaceSaver. Roger is the right man to move RaceSaver forward. Our contract transfers the RaceSaver name, trademarks and business interests to him,” he continued.Grimes will remain in control of RaceSaver rules and standards, distribution of RaceSaver cylinder heads and the technical inspection process, including determining the inspection standards, choosing the inspectors and assuring that the engine has the correct serial number and seal numbers, and is owned by the correct person or entity.
LATEST STORIES FEU tramples UST, advances to PVL finals Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award TNT assistant coach Eric Gonzales said the team will send Stacy Davis home after just four games.“We’re going to change the import because he hasn’t adapted well,” said Gonzales in Filipino after TNT’s 118-114 overtime win over Columbian Sunday at Smart Araneta Coliseum. “That’s the order, change the import.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’Davis averaged 18.3 points and 10.8 rebounds in the four games he played for the KaTropa but he shot the ball rather unimpressively with an 18 percent clip from beyond the arc and an overall 33 percent from the field.TNT team manager Virgil Villavicencio said he hopes the team will reveal its import by the end of the week. MOST READ “There are three players already lined up, I don’t want to say who because I don’t want to pre-empt anything because other teams are also eyeing these three,” said Villavicencio in Filipino. “There’s one new name and the other two have played with us before.”Villavicencio added that head coach Nash Racela is still on leave and the team will temporarily move on without him.“As of now, Nash is on leave, it depends what happens in the future,” said Villavicencio.ADVERTISEMENT Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netCould the third time be the charm for TNT?After replacing original import Mike Glover after their first game in the PBA Governors’ Cup, the KaTropa are once again set to change their import six games into the conference.ADVERTISEMENT Peza offers relief to ecozone firms Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial begins DepEd’s Taal challenge: 30K students displaced Gov’t in no rush to rescue animals in Taal View comments