Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with poor cognition in previous research, but it had been unclear whether SDB preceded this impairment in cognition. New research, co-authored by Susan Redline, a researcher in the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH), finds that SDB is associated with and precedes a higher risk of cognitive impairment in older women. These findings will be published in the Aug. 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.“Even after adjusting for age, body mass index, education, diabetes, and baseline cognitive scores, we found that indices of hypoxia, but not sleep fragmentation or duration, were associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia, suggesting that hypoxia is a likely mechanism through which SDB increases risk for cognitive impairment,” said Redline, who is the Peter C. Farrell Professor of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS).Researchers studied nearly 300 women with a mean age of 82, free of dementia at initial examination. Between 2002 and 2004, 105 of these women were diagnosed with SDB defined as having 15 or more apneas and intermittent hypoxemia per hour of sleep. Five years later, they followed up with the women to determine their cognitive status, which was classified as normal, dementia, or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Researchers found that compared to the women without SDB, those with SDB were nearly two-fold more likely to develop cognitive impairment.“More research is needed to explore the association between hypoxia and risk of MCI/dementia, which could provide clues into the mechanisms through which SDB might promote cognitive impairment,” said Redline. “Given the high prevalence of both SDB and cognitive impairment among older adults, the possibility of an association between the two conditions, even a modest one, has the potential for a large public health impact. This prospective study supports the need for intervention studies to assess whether treatment of SDB may prevent the development of cognitive impairment.”The lead author is Kristine Yaffe of the University of California, San Francisco. Co-author Katie Stone of California Pacific Medical Center directed the Coordinating Center for the study, while co-author Redline directed the sleep study analysis. This research was conducted using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) cohort, which is supported by the National Institutes of Health.
For the first time in living memory the outright markets provided for Dota’s flagship tournament, The International, have truly shown the potential for scope of outright esports markets.Multiple bookmakers have opted for an extensive range of markets, mainly based off Valve’s compendium but it’s comfortably the most comprehensive range of markets seen prior to an esports event that we can remember. Bet365 continue to lead the charge.The bookmaker has offered a staggering:168 tournament markets (including specials);18 markets per match;1464 total markets.Simply put — it’s a fitting way to price up the world’s biggest esports tournament by prizepool. Over $23,000,000 (and counting) is on the line in Seattle and Dota 2 offers a wealth of data to create innovative markets. Whether it’s based GPM, XPM or kills, last hits, assists, game time, tournament heroes picked — there’s a huge amount of data points and we’ve finally seen them being utilised pre-tournament.It owes in large part, arguably, to game developer Valve’s in-game Compendium. It encourages players to make predictions on a multitude of statistics across the tournament and thus automatically keeps tabs on the results. Therefore one would assume it makes a bookmakers job a whole lot easier when the data is 100% reliable and the markets are effectively ready made. Bet365 has not only taken those markets but also created specific hero versus hero match-ups and player versus player match-ups so there’s a huge amount for punters to choose from. The only criticism is that a user has to scroll an awful lot through “Specials” to actually find exactly what’s being offered. There’s little segregation so the user experience isn’t overly optimal — but that’s but a small gripe. The markets are available until tournament action gets underway in around six hours — so for those who want to have a look, make sure you act quickly. They won’t be around for long.It will be interesting to see if bookmakers price up the tournament again pre-main event. There’s a day in the middle (6th August) where the Group Stages are done, but we rarely see esports events updated for outrights mid-tournament. Unlike in football, where you can bet on the overall winner at pretty much every point, it doesn’t tend to be the case with esports for whatever reason. Here’s hoping that it may change in the future. Several other bookmakers have been offering impressive markets as well — Bet365 was just the first we noticed and the most comprehensive out there. For those wishing to have a dabble on The International 7 — check out our “Ready, Steady, Cook” series. Outrights;Day One. Esports Insider says: Let’s hope this has set the precedent for future esports events — not only for Dota but multiple titles. It’s an impressive effort.